Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae) has been used in Ethiopian traditional medicine for the treatment of different inflammatory disorders such as oropharyngitis, wound, pain, fever, and others. However, its use has mainly been based on empirical findings. Thus the objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the antiinflammatory effects and acute oral toxicities of the leaf extracts of Ocimum lamiifolium in mice.
Materials and methods: Aqueous and ethanol crude extracts were screened for their antiinflammatory activities in mice using carrageenin induced paw edema. And then the aqueous extract, the most active extract, was further fractionated and the fractions were tested for their anti-inflammatory activities using carrageenin, histamine and serotonin induced mice paw edema. Distilled water and aspirin were employed as negative and positive controls, respectively. Acute oral toxicity of both extracts and fractions were also determined after giving graded doses.
The aqueous and ethanol extracts were able to reduce inflammation significantly, but greater anti-inflammatory activity was observed for the aqueous extract at all dose levels. Of all fractions the water residue showed highly significant anti-inflammatory activity.
Ocimum lamiifolium leaf extracts exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activities with less acute toxicity.
Different parts including the leaves, stems, flowers, roots, seeds, and even the whole plant are useful. The seeds are edible, and when soaked in water become mucilaginous. The leaves can be eaten as a salad. Basil is widely used in traditional medicine. It is used in Ayurveda and in traditional Chinese medicine for treating digestive system disorders, such as stomach ache and diarrhoea, kidney complaints, and infections. In African traditional medicine, basil is used for treating whooping cough and various types of fever. A leaf decoction is used for treating coughs in West Africa. Many researchers have investigated the antiinflammatory and antinociceptive potential of various Ocimum species.